Socio-Economic Implications of Colonialism: A Comparative Study of Africa and Indian Sub-Continent


  • Maleeka Tul Zahra Department of Economics, The Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawlapur, Pakistan
  • Taseer Salahuddin Department of Economics, The Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawlapur, Pakistan
  • Furrukh Bashir School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • Altaf Hussain Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan



Socioeconomic, Decolonization, Neo-colonization, Colonization, Indigenous People, Colonial Relationship


This is descriptive and exploratory study provides a complete summary on socio-economic implications of colonialism of Great Britain in Africa and Indian subcontinent. In this study used the Meta-analysis. The current study explores impact of colonialism in the post-colonial world through content analysis of books, scholarly works, and online material. Two important books have used extensively in this study, one is by Shashi Tharoor book (Inglorious Empire_ What the British Did to India), who cover the real facts about sub-continent and second is by Adam, Hochs child book (King Leopold's Ghost).Furthermore, it is an exploration of methods to decolonize countries and minds. This study also highlights the positive and negative impacts on the economy of Indian subcontinent and Africa. The British had a significant impact on linguistic, education systems and training, historic architecture, effective communication, the political and governmental systems, mentality, and culture in the area that Asia (especially India and Pakistan) inherited and Africa. This study comprehensively contributes to the understanding of colonialism role in different socioeconomic factors from various dimensions. It further points out future directions of research.


Ahn, E., & Kang, H. (2018). Introduction to systematic review and meta-analysis. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 71(2), 103.

Bigon, L., & Njoh, A. J. (2018). Power and Social Control in Settler and Exploitation Colonies: The Experience of New France and French Colonial Africa. Https://Doi.Org/10.1177/0021909618762508, 53(6), 932–951.

BLAKEMORE, E. (2019, February 19). Colonialism facts and information.

Boshoff, N. (2009). Neo-colonialism and research collaboration in Central Africa. Scientometrics, 81(2), 413–434.

Chuadhry, A. G., Ur, H., & Chaudhry, R. (n.d.). Development Chronicle of Pakistan: A Case of Colonial Legacy.

Cohen, B. M. Z. (2020). A postcolonial critique of mental health. The Routledge International Handbook of Race, Culture and Mental Health, 32–42.

Daun, H., & Arjmand, R. (Eds.). (2017). Handbook of Islamic Education. 7.

Decolonization of Asia and Africa, 1945-1960. (n.d.).

Decolonization of Asia and Africa , 1945-1960. (1970). 1970.

Eric Tangumonkem. (2021, July). The driver of superiority and inferiority complexe by Eric Tangumonkem, Ph.D. - Google Search. 07-Jul-2021.

Free, M., & Ritish, B. (2018). Settler Colonialism. Victorian Literature and Culture, 46(3–4), 876–882.

Garcia-Olp, M. (2018). Digital Commons @ DU Digital Commons @ DU Electronic Theses and Dissertations Graduate Studies How Colonization Impacts Identity Through the Generations: A How Colonization Impacts Identity Through the Generations: A Closer Look at Historical Trauma and E.

Halperin, S. (2006). International Relations Theory and the Hegemony of Western Conceptions of Modernity. Decolonizing International Relations, 43–63.

Irom, O. A. (n.d.). "Decolonization in Asia, Latin America and Africa.

Kalu, K., & Falola, T. (2019). Introduction: Exploitation, Colonialism, and Postcolonial Misrule in Africa. Exploitation and Misrule in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa, 1–23.

Khalili Tehrani, S. (2021). Neo-Colonialism in Africa. The Most Dangerous Form of Imperialism?

Khan, S., Mahmood, R., & Zafar, K. (2018). A Literary Representation of Educational Transformation and its Effect on South-Asia and Africa during British Colonization A Literary Representation of ET and its Effect on South-Asia and Africa during BC 220 (Vol. 40, Issue 3).

Kohn, M., & Reddy, K. (n.d.). Colonialism.

Kroeze, R., Dalmau, P., & Monier, F. (2021). Introduction: Corruption, Empire and Colonialism in the Modern Era: Towards a Global Perspective BT - Corruption, Empire and Colonialism in the Modern Era: A Global Perspective (R. Kroeze, P. Dalmau, & F. Monier (Eds.); pp. 1–19). Springer Singapore.

Langan, M. (2018). Neo-Colonialism and Nkrumah: Recovering a Critical Concept. Neo-Colonialism and the Poverty of “Development” in Africa, 1–32.

Mahoklory, S. S., & Hoda, F. S. (2022). The Effects of Chromotherapy on the Stress Level of Patients With Hypertension. Jurnal Berita Ilmu Keperawatan, 15(1), 1–7.

Matin, K. (2012). Redeeming the universal: Postcolonialism and the inner life of Eurocentrism. European Journal of International Relations, 19(2), 353–377.


Meyer, L. E. (2023). No Title. The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 31(1), 118–120.

MORRIS AMANDA. (2019, January). What Is Settler-Colonialism? | Learning for Justice. 22-01-2019.

Müller, L. (2018). Colonialism ( Review Article of Textbook Analyses ) Colonialism. August.

Murrey, A. (2020). Colonialism (A. B. T.-I. E. of H. G. (Second E. Kobayashi (Ed.); pp. 315–326). Elsevier.

Nicholls, T. (2011). Colonialism BT - Encyclopedia of Global Justice (D. K. Chatterjee (Ed.); pp. 161–165). Springer Netherlands.

Odukoya, A. O. (2017). Settler and non-settler colonialism in Africa. The Palgrave Handbook of African Politics, Governance and Development, 173–186.

Olsson, N. (2018). Nineteen Eighty-Four as a Critique of British Colonialism.

OSMAN, J. (2020, September 11). What Is Colonialism? A History of Violence, Control and Exploitation | Teen Vogue. 2020.

Penson, W. J. (2019). Psycho-colonialism: colonisation in mental health.

Rahman, A., & Ali, M. (2018). Peace and Conflict Studies The British Art of Colonialism in India?: Subjugation and Division The British Art of Colonialism in India?: Subjugation and Division. 25(1).

Ringmar, E. (2005). The mechanics of modernity in Europe and East Asia: Institutional origins of social change and stagnation. In The Mechanics of Modernity in Europe and East Asia: Institutional Origins of Social Change and Stagnation.

Sánchez-Meca, J., & Marín-Martínez, F. (2010). Meta analysis. International Encyclopedia of Education, 274–282.

Sante, L. (1998, September 27). Leopold’s Heart of Darkness / Adam Hochschild tells how Belgium’s king savaged the Congo and spawned the first human rights campaign.

Shakib, M. K. (2011). The position of language in development of colonization. 2(July), 117–123.

Smilak, N. R., Robert, ·, Putnam, F., Putnam, R. F., & Org, B. (2022). A Critique of Colonialism and Modern Aid in Africa: What Would Skinner Say? Behavior and Social Issues 2022 31:1, 31(1), 252–271.

Social Research Glossary. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2023, from

Stemler, S. (2001). An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 7(17), 2000–2001.

Stone, A. (2020). Hegel and Colonialism. Hegel Bulletin, 41(2), 247–270.

Systems, P., & History, E. (1997). decolonization. 1–11.

Tan, C. (2017). Colonialism, Postcolonialism, Islam, and Education. 1–12.

Tuck, E., & Yang, K. W. (2012). Decolonization is not a metaphor. 1(1), 1–40.

Types of colonialism - INSIGHTSIAS. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2023, from

White, B. W. (1996). Talk about School: Education and the colonial project in French and British Africa (1860-1960). Comparative Education, 32(1), 9–26.

Woolsey, C. L., & Jarlais, D. (2009). ScholarWorks at University of Montana Cultural Characteristics of Western Educational Structures and Their Effects on Local Ways of Knowing Let us know how access to this document benefits you .

zaman, asad. (2018, July 2). What the World Lost Due to Decline of Islamic Civilization | An Islamic WorldView.




How to Cite

Zahra, M. T. ., Salahuddin, T. ., Bashir, F., & Hussain, A. . (2023). Socio-Economic Implications of Colonialism: A Comparative Study of Africa and Indian Sub-Continent. Journal of Languages, Culture and Civilization, 5(2), 125-140.