Depiction of Postmodern culture in Elif Shafak’s “The Bastard of Istanbul”
Keywords:Postmodern culture, Postmodern literature, technology, society, social issues, pop culture
Postmodern culture or postmodernity speaks of social, economic or cultural conditions which made an appearance in western society after the modern age. It functions opposite to the modern outlook. This research has been carried out to represent postmodern culture in contemporary social structure through “The Bastard of Istanbul” written by a Turkish author Elif Shafak. The novel has been investigated deeper keeping in view the concept of postmodern culture. The results unfold that the author exhibits pop culture, social hypocrisy, dual standards, social follies and wavering personalities in the novel. This research concludes that the author has, by incorporating postmodern elements in the novel, highlighted social and cultural issues which are a reflection of our contemporary society.
Atwood, M. (2008). Alice Munro’s selected stories. A Douglas Gibson Book.
Barry, P. (2002). Beginning Theory. Manchester University Press.
Bashir, A., Alvi, S., Zafran, F. (2013). The use of symbolic language in Ibsen’s A Doll House: A Feministic perspective. Languages in India. 13 (3) pp. 622-630.
Eagly, A. Kite, H. (1987). Are stereotypes of nationalities applied to both women and men? Journal of Personality and social psychology 5 (3) pp. 452-462.
Gorden, M. Kreiswirth, M (1997). The John Hopkins Guide to Literary theory &criticism. The John Hopkins University press.
Green, R. (2010). Robert Stoller’s Sex and Gender: 40 Years On. Achives of Sexual Behavior 39 (6). pp. 1457-1465.
Kalpana, H. (1995). Reshaping the self: Feminine identities in the short stories of Alice Munro and Sushi Deshpande. (Published Ph.D. thesis). Department of English, Pondicherry University, India.
Keltner, S.K. (2011). Kristeva. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Kristeva, J. (1980). Desire in Language: A semiotic to Literature and Art, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Kristeva. J, (1984) Revolution Poetic Language. Colombia University Press.
Satish, K., Rabakar, V.M. (2011) Alice Munro’s Stories and Feminism. Cyber Literature volume 4 (1). pp.126-135.
Satish, K. Probakar, M.K. (2011) Indictment of Gender Discrimination in Alice Munro’s lives of Girls and women. Cyber Literature 4(1). pp 156-163.
West, C., Zimmerman, H. (1987) Doing gender. Gender and society 1(2) pp. 125-151.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.